University of Science and Technology of China
The University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) is a prominent university in China and enjoys an excellent reputation worldwide. It was established by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in 1958 in Beijing, as a strategic action by the Chinese government, to meet China’s science and technology needs and increases the country’s international competitiveness. CAS integrated its resources with USTC, with the aim of educating top talent in cutting-edge, interdisciplinary science and technology. The establishment of USTC was hailed as “a great event in the history of education and science of China”. In 1970, USTC moved to its current location in Hefei, the capital of Anhui Province.
From the start, USTC’s mission has been to “focus on frontier areas of science and technology and educate top leaders in science and technology for China and the world”. Central to its strategy has been the combination of education and research, as well as the emphasis on quality rather than quantity. Led by the most renowned Chinese scientists of the time, USTC set up a series of programs creatively encompassing frontier research and development of new technology. As a result, the university has taken the lead in higher education in China. USTC has accomplished several “firsts” in China. For example, USTC established the first graduate school in China, initiated the first class for gifted young people in China and built the first “big science facility” in China, the Hefei Synchrotron Radiation Facility.
USTC is one of the most important innovation centers in China. It is the only university in China operating two national labs: the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory and the Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale. It also jointly operates two national “big science” facilities along with CAS institutes: the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak and the Steady High Magnetic Field of the High Magnetic Field Laboratory.
USTC is a world leader in fields like quantum manipulation, nanotechnology, high-temperature superconductivity, speech processing, fire science and life science. It is always ranked as one of the best universities in China. For example, USTC was ranked first among Chinese universities from 2008 to 2013 by Nature Publishing Index China. In addition, USTC attaches great importance to technology transfer and has incubated dozens of high-tech enterprises. Furthermore, it jointly built the Institute of Advanced Technology (IAT) with Hefei City in 2012, aiming to better promote the combination of education, research and industry. USTC-IAT focuses on fostering technological innovation and technology transfer in the IT industry, as well as microelectronics, health care, new energy, new materials and quantum information, etc.
USTC is regarded in China as the “Cradle of Scientific Elites”. Its educational principle emphasizes fundamental theories and provides students with a wide range of high-level training that incorporates newly emerging as well as interdisciplinary fields of study. The faculty-to-student ratio is one of the best among Chinese universities. Admission to USTC is extremely selective. Only the top 0.3-0.5 percent of high school graduates are admitted. Over 70 percent of undergraduate students are involved in the Research Program for Undergraduate Students in CAS research institutes or national labs on campus. USTC has the highest percentage of alumni, among Chinese universities, elected as members of CAS and the Chinese Academy of Engineering. Doctoral dissertations at USTC are frequently awarded the Hundred Annual Outstanding Dissertations Prize, which honors the top dissertations from Chinese universities.
Total enrollment for spring 2015 is about 15,500 students, of whom 7,400 are undergraduates, 6,200 are master’s students, and 1,900 are Ph.D. students. USTC has 1,572 faculty members, of whom 528 are professors. USTC has 15 degree-granting schools in the fields of physical sciences, life sciences, information science and technology, earth and space sciences, public affairs, nuclear science and technology, mathematical sciences, chemistry and material science, engineering science, computer science and technology, management, humanities and social science, environmental science and electro-optical technology, and software engineering, as well as a school for gifted youth.
USTC actively participates in international cooperation in various ways. It has engaged in joint research and educational activities with internationally acclaimed organizations such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the Max Planck Society, Oxford University, Heidelberg University, Stanford University, MIT, Princeton University, the University of California, Berkeley, and Yale University, etc. For example, it established a training program with ITER and initiated the SUM program, a summer camp for students and an academic forum for professors from Stanford University, USTC and MIT. USTC is also a member of several important international networks, including the Association of Pacific Rim Universities and the Association of East Asian Research Universities, etc. In 2013, USTC hosted the signing ceremony for the Hefei Statement, which USTC has actively promoted. The Hefei Statement is an agreement among the Association of American Universities (AAU), the C9 League (C9), a consortium of China’s top nine research universities, the Group of Eight (Go8), a coalition of Australia’s top universities, and the League of European Research Universities (LERU) to promote cooperation among world-class research universities.
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU), as one of the higher education institutions which enjoy a long history and a world-renowned reputation in China, is a key university directly under the administration of the Ministry of Education (MOE) of the People's Republic of China and co-constructed by MOE and Shanghai Municipal Government. Through 120 years' unremitting efforts, SJTU has become a comprehensive, research-oriented, and internationalized top university in China.
By December 2015, SJTU has had 29 schools/departments, 25 directly-affiliated institutions, 13 affiliated hospitals, with 16,188 undergraduates and 288,42 postgraduates (13,841 master degree candidates and 6,506 doctorate degree candidates)，2,134 overseas students. The university faculty includes 2,793 full-time teachers (among which 890 are professors), 22 members of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 24 members of Chinese Academy of Engineering, 1 selected in "Thousand Talents Top Program" of the Organization Department of CPC Central Committee, 98 selected in "Thousand Talents Program" of the Organization Department of CPC Central Committee,84 chosen in "Young Talents Program", 131 Distinguished Professors and Chair Professors of "Cheung Kong Scholar Program", 116 winners of China National Funds for Distinguished Young Scientists, 35 Chief Scientists of the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (973 Program), 14 Chief Scientists of the State Key Scientific Research Program, 13 Innovation Research Groups, National Natural Science Foundation of China and 20 Innovation Teams, MOE.
Today SJTU has 62 undergraduate programs covering 9 major disciplines: economics, law, literature, science, engineering, agriculture, medicine, management and arts. Since 2000, there are 47 national higher education teaching achievement prizes （31 completed independently）. With 12 National Teaching and Talents Cultivation Bases, 9 National Off-campus Practice Education Bases, 6 National Experimental Teaching Demonstration Centers, 2 national demonstration centers of virtual simulation experiment teaching，5 National Engineering Practice Education Centers, and 10 Shanghai Municipal Experiment Teaching Demonstration Centers, SJTU has 8 national-level teaching groups, 15 Shanghai Municipal teaching groups, 8 nationally renowned teachers and 36 Shanghai locally renowned teachers and owns 46 national-level quality courses, 12 national-level video-recorded open courses, 23 national-level quality resource-sharing courses, 153 Shanghai Municipal quality courses, 7 bilingual-teaching demonstration courses, and 11 Shanghai higher education all-English demonstration courses.
Up to now SJTU has 37 first-level disciplines authorized to offer doctorate degree covering 8 fields: economics, law, literature, science, engineering, agriculture, medicine and management; 55 first-level disciplines authorized to offer master degree covering all the 12 discipline fields; 3 disciplines authorized to offer professional doctorate degree; 23 disciplines authorized to offer professional master degree; 32 postdoctoral research station, 1 national laboratory (preparing), 1 national key technology infrastructure, 8 national key laboratories, 5 national engineering research centers, 2 national engineering laboratories, 1 national research and development centers, 1 national defense key discipline laboratory, 3 collaborative innovation centers, 1 international united laboratory；14 key laboratories of MOE, 5 key laboratories of National Health and Family Planning Commission, 1 key laboratory of Ministry of Agriculture, 31 key laboratories of Shanghai Municipal Government, 5 engineering research centers of MOE, 5 engineering technology research centers of Shanghai, 1 National Social Science Fund consultation spot, 2 research bases for cultural industries, Ministry of Culture, 12 theoretical innovation bases, think tank and economic and social development research office of Shanghai, 3 WHO collaborating centers, 1 National Technology Transfer Center, and 1 National University Science Park.
SJTU enjoys an increasingly high scientific research level and technology innovation level. Up to 2015, SJTU led the country for the 6th consecutive year in terms of both the project number and the amount of money issued by National Natural Science Foundation of China, ranked second in sponsored research grants. The number and other indexes of SCI papers of SJTU rank among the top for years, with 5,398 SCI papers in 2014 remaining the second among all the universities in China. The total number of SCI-cited papers from 2005 to 2014 reaches 35,488, with 308,723 times of citation, ranking the second in China. 2,402 papers were regarded as "doing-a-good-job" papers, ranking the second in China. 1220 co-authored papers with SJTU as the first-author affiliation were published on international journals, staying the second in China with a year-on-year growth of 162 papers. 181 papers were selected in the "154 most influential international academic papers in China; ranking the third. 762 papers in different fields were published on journals whose Impact Factors are among the top 10 percent, ranking the fourth in China with a year-on-year growth of 76 papers. 8 papers were included in the four most prestigious journals (SCIENCE, NATURE, CELL, PNAS), ranking the fourth in China. 7,712 sci-tech papers were published domestically, with 26,068 times of citation nationwide, ranking the first in China.